Lastly, through samadhi the quality of nirliptatva, or detachment, and thereafter mukti (liberation) is attained. Samadhi considered as a process is intense mental concentration, with freedom from all samkalpa, and attachment to the world, and all sense of “mineness,â€ or self-interest (mamata). Considered as the result of such process it is the union of Jiva with the Paramatrna.(1)
FORMS OF SAMADHI-YOGA
This samadhi yoga is, according to the Gheranda Samhita, of six kinds: (2)
- Dhyana-yoga-samadhi, attained by sambhavi-rnudra (3) in which after meditation on the Bindu-Brahman and realization of the Atma (atmapratyaksa), the latter is resolved into the Mahakasa,
- Nada-yoga, attained by khecarimudra, (4) in which the fraenum of the tongue is cut, and the latter is lengthened until it reaches the space between the eyebrows, and is then introduced in a reversed position into the mouth.
- Rasanandayoga, attained by kumbhaka, (5) in which the sadhaka in a silent place closes both ears and does puraka and kumbhaka until he hears the word nada in sounds varying in strength from that of the cricket’s chirp to that of the large kettle-drum. By daily practice the anahata sound is heard, and the jyoti with the manas therein is seen, which is ultimately dissolved in the supreme Visnu.
- Laya-siddhi-yoga, accomplished by the celebrated yonirnudra already described. (6) The Sadhaka, thinking of himself as Sakti and the Paramatma as Purusa, feels himself in union (samgama) with S’iva, and enjoys with him the bliss which is srngararasa, (7) and becomes Bliss itself, or the Brahman.
- Bhakti-Yoga, in which meditation is made on the Istadevata with devotion (bhakti) until, with tears flowing from the excess of bliss, the ecstatic condition is attained.
- Rajayoga, accomplished by the aid of the manomurccha kumbhaka.(8) Here the manas detached from all worldly objects is fixed between the eyebrows in the ajna cakra, and kumbhaka is done. By the union of the manas with the atma, in which the jnani sees all things, raja-yoga-samadhi is attained.
1. See Commentary on verse 51 of the Satcakranuripana.
2. Seventh Upadesa,
3. Ibid., Third Upadesa (verses 65 II, seq. ).
4. Ibid., verses 25 , seq.
5. Ibid., Fifth Upadesa (verses 77 II seq.).
6. In the Lalita (verse 142) the Devi is addressed as Layakari-the cause of laya or mental absorption.
7. S’rngara is the love sentiment or sexual passion and sexual union. The first of the eight or nine rasa (sentiments)-viz., srngara, vira (heroism), karuna (compassion), adbhuta (wondering), hasya (humour), bhayanaka (fear), bibhatsa (disgust), raudra (wrath) to which Manmathabhatta, author of the Kavyaprakasa adds santi (peace).
8. Ibid., Fifth Upadesa, verse 82.